Emission of As takes place in the environment by volatilization of As due to burning of coal, which condenses in the flue system and ultimately transferred into water reservoirs .
The degree of groundwater arsenic contamination by aforesaid anthropogenic sources is much less as compared to the natural sources; however, their contribution cannot be neglected.
In terrestrial environment, the inorganic forms of As (such as trivalent arsenite ()) are more prevalent and toxic than the organic forms in general.
Elevated level of As in groundwater has been well documented in Chile, Mexico, China, Argentina, USA, and Hungary [1, 2] as well as in the Indian State of West Bengal, Bangladesh, and Vietnam [2–6].
About 150 million people around the world are estimated to be affected globally with an increasing prospect as new affected areas are continuously discovered .
Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers.
This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination.
Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Since water is the principal route through which As enters into the human body , the understanding of the processes of As contamination in groundwater, associated health risks, and mitigation of As problem is required.
The present review summarizes possible sources of As contamination of groundwater, global overview of groundwater As contamination, toxicity, basic chemistry, associated health risks, and the best available strategies for mitigation of As pollution in groundwater.
The presence of metalloid in excess concentration in groundwater may be associated with ore deposits where As is present predominantly in sulfidic minerals such as arsenopyrite and pyrite .