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There were plenty of ailments in northern Europe for which sugar was considered suitable treatment--coughs, colds, chest infections, agues. Thomas Aquinas himself apparently considered and pronounced on the subject), which meant it could be legitimately nibbled during Lent, probably adding to its appeal.It is no coincidence that our earliest information about pulled-sugar sweets in Britian, using the very word penides that travelled all the way from the Orient, comes from compilations of medicinal formulae, not elegant books on fine confectionery.The conceit is carried further by mounding the cream over small pieces of cake stuck to the main roll, to represent trimmed branches.

84-5) "When sugar first became known in Europe it was a rare and costly commodity, valued mainly for its supposed medicinal qualities and finding its place in the pharmacopoeia of the medieval apothecary...

Sugar gradually became more widely available in Europe during the Middle Ages.

Sprinkle very lightly with green sugar." ---The Complete Tante Marie's French Kitchen, Translated and adapted by Charlotte Turgeon [Oxford University Press: New York] 1962 (p. For other people, it was a special treat saved for holidays (Christmas, Easter) and other special occasions (weddings, christenings). This idea survives today in the form of cough drops.

127-8) Why are some candies associated with Christmas? Confectioners were quick to recognize the popularity of hard candy, in its various forms.

Fold in the flour and then the butter, which should be cooled.

Fold in the beaten egg whites gently but thoroughly.

Nota: Pour le Noel, on fait aussi un autre gateau symbolique auquel on donne l'aspect d'un sabot. Rouler le tout dans un papier beurre, en forme de cylindre. Although it does not take the place of our flaming Christmas pudding, it makes a nice dessert to serve at any time during the Christmas season.

Ce gateau, qu l'on fait ordinarement en nougat, se garnit de petits fours divers." ---Larousse Gastronomique, Prospere Montagne [Librarie Larousse: Paris] 1938 (p. Les ecraser et les melanges a chaud avec: 125 grammes de beurre fondu, 125 gr. 4 egg yolks 1/3 cup sugar 1/2 cup sifted all-purpose flour 2 tablespoons melted butter 3 egg whites Chocolate Butter Cream 1 1 teaspoon instant coffee 1 teaspoon hot water 2 or 3 blanched almonds angelica candied cherries green sugar Preheat oven to 400 degrees F.

A description of pulling sugar was written down about 1500 in the York manuscript, under the title To make penydes...

The art of pulling sugar was evidently well understood 500 years ago..." ---Sugar-Plums and Sherbet: The Prehistory of Sweets, Laura mason [Prospect Books: Devon] 2004 (p.

That's when thinly rolled sponge cakes filled with jam or cream and covered with buttercream icing begin to show up in European cook books.


  1. Whether it's dating or marrying someone of a different race, interracial relationships are not a new phenomenon among Asian Americans. It was not until 1967, during the height of the Civil Rights Movement, that the U. Supreme Court ruled in the case that such laws were unconstitutional. As suc, one could argue that it's only been in recent years that interracial marriages have become common in American society.

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